There can be no greater nightmare for a medical worker than to be accused of harming their patients. Even worse, if the allegations are untrue. Yet this is exactly what has happened to six health workers who have been sentenced to death for spreading HIV among Libyan children. Today we publish urgently an essay from Council on Foreign Relations Senior Fellow and Pulitzer Prize winning author Laurie Garrett, that warns of the terrible dangers not just to these workers but to health workers worldwide, and their patients in the poorest parts of the world if the executions go ahead. The essay is part of an increasing chorus of condemnation in scientific journals including Science and Nature . AAAS has a website which gives information on how anyone can add their voice to this campaign.